The 22nd edition of the Conference of Parties (COP 22) and the 12th session of the Conference of Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 12) kicked off in Bab Ighli, Marrakech, Morocco, on November 7. These meetings will last until November 18.
As a mountainous country, which is vulnerable to climate change, Nepal is taking part in these sessions, sharing the successes of the adaptation projects implemented in various parts of the country to live with climate change.
Ratifying the Paris Agreement, Nepal has shown that it is committed to implement the measures to reduce the gasses that warm the climate. Although Nepal is liable to making very insignificant contributions to the global pollution, the country has been implementing some mitigation programs along with the adaptation projects.
Concerned Nepalese teams have expressed happiness that the Nepal ratified the agreement before 5 October 2016 as part of the threshold for the entry into force of the Paris Agreement. The Paris Agreement entered into force from 4 November 2016. As a result, the first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA 1) was to take place in Marrakech in as conjunction with COP 22 and CMP 12.
As temperatures get warmer, glacial lakes may burst at any time threatening the people downstream. Similarly, rainfall patterns become more intense, inhabitants of the hills and plains are under constant threats from landslides and floods. With the rise of flood, thousands of people lose their means of livelihood annually. According to the Home Ministry, the annual loss of property due to floods is over 10 to 50 billion rupees.
With extensive droughts, which are more common during the dry winter months, farmers have been facing a lot of problems, including food insecurity. The Ministry of Agriculture Development has already announced certain contingency programs to cope with the situation.
Although Nepal is responsible for less than 0.05% of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Nepal has had to bear the burden of all climate change impacts.
“As a member of LDC group, Nepal will focus on the issues raised by LDCs. With the successful implementation of NSCCP, Nepal has something to show to the world about the adaptation measures,” said Jaya Dev Joshi, Minister of Population and Environment.
"Besides moving forward on major negotiation areas, action is taking place and creating a tangible bridge between our vision for a brighter future and the implementation of concrete climate responsible projects on the ground. Parties as well as non-State actors, have a real opportunity to emphasize this momentum, celebrate successes and share experiences and learning to set inclusively the path forward for action."
Finally, COP 22 is also committed to reinforce responsible collaboration between all Parties in order to achieve a collective shift towards a new sustainable development model.
According to ICIMOD, ICIMOD will draw attention to a range of climate change-related issues and their impact on the ecosystem of the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. ICIMOD, in partnership with the Ministry of Population and Environment (MoPE), Government of Nepal, will be co-organizing a side event on ‘Experiences sharing on Nepal’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) formulation Process and Approach’.
In partnership with the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), ICIMOD will be co-organising two side events on ‘Afforestation and REDD+ in India’ and ‘Transboundary REDD+ Programme in Himalayas: south-south cooperation for Climate Change mitigation’.
Jointly with Ministry of Population and Environment, ICIMOD will also have an exhibit booth that will display scientific information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and policy measures and adaptation actions with a special focus on mountains.
As all Least Developed Countries are, Nepal is also vulnerable to climate change. Forty-four nations work together at the intergovernmental negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change with two aims to demand that wealthier nations act in accordance with their responsibility for creating the problem and their capability for addressing it and others to play a leadership role in global efforts to prevent dangerous climate change.
In their recent ministerial meeting pre-Marrakech, in Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo, LDC group agreed on common agenda for the COP 22.
They reached an understanding that a tremendous amount of work is ahead of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for the full implementation of the work program mandated in Paris to prepare for the entry into force and operationalization of the Paris Agreement. This enormous work can only be achieved through mutual understanding and political will among Parties.
The meeting appreciated countries that have already deposited their instruments of ratification of the Paris Agreement and those that have fulfilled or are well advanced in fulfilling their domestic processes with a view to ratifying it in 2016.
The meeting also urged all LDCs to complete their domestic processes required for ratification and to deposit their instruments of ratification as soon as possible.
LDC ministers also urged its members to ratify the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol to support the multilateral process under its second commitment period; and engage actively in the development of rule-set of the Paris Agreement under the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement (APA) and UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies.
They also noted the importance of ensuring the achievements of Paris Agreement and create peer pressure for other Parties to join, thereby ensuring that the Paris Agreement enters into force at the earliest possible date and providing the best chance of achieving the 1.5°C warming limit agreed in Paris.
Ministers urged the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism serving the Paris Agreement to ensure country ownership, facilitate direct access and provide support while prioritizing the most vulnerable countries particularly LDCs to develop quality projects.
They called upon LDC negotiators to continue to collaborate with other groups of Parties and partners to ensure effective implementation of the Paris Agreement. This collaboration should safeguard and preserve the key interests of LDCs and all flexibilities provided to LDCs as well as special circumstances recognized in the Paris Agreement.
The meet urged all international partners, bilateral or multilateral, to provide full support to LDC countries, bearing in mind the objectives of the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA) for Least Developed Countries, to ensure all LDCs engage effectively in a pathway toward low emission and climate resilient development, that will protect the life of our population, economy and system.
They urged to ensure that some of the key features spelled out in Article 4 of the Paris Agreement are considered while defining the mitigation section of NDC, including the link to the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2; progression on successive NDCs; to be informed by the outcomes of the global stock take; support for developing countries; and flexibility for LDCs and SIDS,
They called for a strong LDC participation that was needed at the IPCC plenary meeting on 17-20 October to decide on the scope of the Special Report on 1.5°C. LDCs should push for a decision on scope with adequate focus on 1.5 °C, climate impacts and regional vulnerabilities, and that responds to the scientific assessments/benchmarks needed under Paris Agreement and CP.21 decisions.
They called for participation in the annual high-level events on pre-2020 action in conjunction with the COP to safeguard the interests of LDCs.With respect to the 2018 Facilitative Dialogue, support the need to agree on a mandate in Marrakech that will allow work to commence on its scope, inputs and modalities, for decision at COP in 2017.
Ministers also helped to raise the profile of adaptation by insisting on recognition of adaptation efforts and seek mobilization of adequate and effective support for adaptation.
The plan is to formulate and implement NAPs as the vehicle for prioritizing and communicating adaptation needs, and initiate national systems for long-term planning and implementation and make use of the available $3 million per country under the Readiness and Preparatory Support Programme of the GCF for the formulation of NAPs.
The ministers also called to ensure substantial resources are provided through the funds established under the Convention and Kyoto Protocol to address needs and priorities for implementation (GCF, GEF, LDCF and AF), identify national capacity constraints and work towards building capacities to be able to develop project/programme funding proposals and access funding from available resources, particularly from the GCF.
The call is also meant to prioritize building capacity at the national level to develop projects that meet applicable criteria through use of “readiness programmes” and project preparation support, establish and strengthen national authorities to allow for direct access to funding for implementation, through satisfaction of necessary accreditation criteria, scale up target by 2025 for funds to be mobilized beyond existing floor of $100 billion per year, based on scale of implementation needs in connection with the 1.5oC temperature goal and adaptation needs in connection with projected impacts of climate change.
Furthermore, it seeks to engage actively in the elaboration of the transparency framework, cognizant of LDC capacity and other challenges, to ensure that the resulting rules reflect the discretion and flexibility provided to LDCs’ under the Paris Agreement and its adopting decision.
It also aims to engage in development of projects to strengthen domestic reporting capacities through the Capacity Building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT) operated by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
They also urge the stakeholders to ensure that the compliance mechanism, in fulfilling its mandate to facilitate implementation and promote compliance, encompasses all obligations under the Paris Agreement, and engage actively in the development of modalities and procedures for the compliance mechanism and its committee.
The COP22 agenda includes organizing the early entry into force of the Paris Agreement and the holding of the first meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA1) during COP22 in Marrakech.
The agenda will also include discussions on means of implementation of the Paris Agreement before and after 2020 such as capacity building and finance packages as well as developing a Paris Agreement rulebook to implement the various components. An emphasis will also be put on sharing perspectives on the Global Climate Action Agenda as presented by the Moroccan and French High-level Climate Champions, Hakima El Haite and Laurence Tubiana, and promoting ways to foster climate ambition at all levels of society.
The second pillar of the plan is to encourage Parties to implement and strengthen their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). COP22 will be a COP of action with a special focus on the important contributions of civil society. The Moroccan Presidency will take stock with civil society during the Marrakech climate change conference and chart a common agenda together.