Over two years of dreams turned into a reality on 18 September 2015 after the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MoSTE) launched a process to formulate and implement the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) in Nepal. Established by the Cancun decision on UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2010, the NAP has the objectives of: (i) reducing vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, by building adaptive capacity and resilience; and (ii) facilitating the integration of climate change adaptation (CCA) into relevant new and existing policies, strategies, programmes and activities of relevant sectors and at different levels. The NAP contributes to address medium and long-term adaptation needs of the least developed countries (LDCs) and other developing countries.
Nepal prepared the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2010 to address the most urgent, immediate and prioritised adaptation actions using the NAPA preparation guideline adopted by the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP7) in Marrakesh in 2001. Nepal is implementing NAPA prioritised adaptation actions using National Framework on Local Adaptation Plan for Action (LAPA, 2011) and Climate Change Policy, 2011. The LDCs will formulate and implement NAP based on the experiences and lessons learned from NAPA preparation and implementation.
Parties to the UNFCCC have decided to provide financial support to LDCs from the LDC Fund to formulate and implement NAP. None of the LDCs have secured funding for NAP process from the LDCF as it is 'empty' now. The LDCs may wish to secure funding from the Green Climate Fund (GCF) through its readiness programme. As Nepal has negligible greenhouse gas emissions, she has to build her adaptive capacity and resilience to cope with the adverse impacts of climate change. For this, Nepal's engagement in the NAP process would be rewarding. Nepal may wish to use domestic resources or explore and secure climate finances from within and outside the UNFCCC. Furthermore, development partners may wish to support Nepal on this process as for NAPA preparation and implementation. The on-going projects related to the CCA and climate resilience may also support to speed-up this process.
In order to advance the NAP process, the LDC Expert Group (LEG) has published the Technical Guidelines for the NAP process in December 2012, in line with the NAP initial guidelines adopted by the Parties in 2011. The LEG and NAP-Global Support Programme (GSP) have organized regional training workshops on the NAP process to build human resources in each LDC between 2013 and 2015. In addition to those engaged in CCA negotiation process, about 10 Government officials are exposed or trained on the NAP process in Nepal through these workshops. The Government may wish to use available financial, technical and human resources.
As mentioned in the NAP initial guidelines and LEG produced technical guidelines, the NAP process includes four elements: (i) laying the groundwork and addressing the gap; (ii) preparatory elements; (iii) implementation strategies; and (iv) reporting, monitoring and review. The NAP process is country-driven, gender sensitive, and should be fully participatory and transparent. It is guided by best available science, and considers traditional and indigenous knowledge. It is a continuous planning process, is flexible and based on country needs, and builds on existing adaptation efforts.
Nearly two years back, the Government showed interest to engage in the NAP process with possible support from the NAP-GSP. The Clean Energy Nepal with support from WWF Nepal organised awareness raising activities at five districts (Sindhupalchowk, Rasuwa, Itahari, Dhading and Kaski), including wide stakeholder-based Kathmandu seminar and developed a roadmap for the NAP process. The Jalsrot Vikas Sanstha/GWP Nepal has prepared separate stocktaking reports for water resources and agriculture sectors using the NAP Technical Guidelines. These stocks could be best utilised during the NAP process. Nearly a month back, Nepal Health Research Council with support from WHO has organised a workshop to engage in the NAP process and/or ensure integration of the health aspects in the NAP process. The Government of Germany through UNDP and FAO is supporting Nepal in integrating agriculture in NAPs. The MoSTE may wish to take these initiatives and experiences and lessons learned from the NAPA preparation and implementation as 'building blocks' for the NAP process.
As an UNFCCC focal point for Nepal, MoSTE has taken the leadership. Using the experiences of the NAPA preparation process, nine Thematic Working Groups (TWGs) will be formed. They are: (i) agriculture and food security; (ii) forests and biodiversity; (iii) water resources and energy; (iv) health; (v) climate-induced disasters; (vi) urban settlement and infrastructure; (vii) tourism, natural and cultural heritage; (viii) gender and social inclusion; and (ix) livelihood and governance. The TWGs approach will further enhance awareness, build capacity, help to integrate adaptation and resilience into sectors, and ensure multi-stakeholder ownership.
As multi-sectors and several stakeholders will be engaged in the NAP process at different levels, coordination might be a key issue. The MoSTE may wish to form a technical committee and best utilise the existing Multi-stakeholder Climate Change Initiative Coordination Committee for coordination at the functional level. The Climate Change Council (chaired by the Prime Minister) and Climate Change Coordination Committee (chaired by the Minister) ensure political leadership for overall coordination and guidance for the NAP process.
The NAP process should be used as an opportunity to explore multiple avenues in building 'country capacity' on climate change adaptation and resilience in Nepal, securing climate finance, and making development climate-proofed, climate-friendly and sustainable.