Nepal As A Socialism Oriented Welfare State: In The Context Of Morcha

The Constitution of Nepal envisages a prosperous and socialist Nepal. However, the essential sectors connected with the economy and public life have been given to the private sector.

July 6, 2023, 11:30 a.m.

Socialist oriented:

The constitution of Nepal actually says that Nepal is "oriented towards socialism", Nepal wants to become a socialist state in the long run. Nepal does not seem to be fully socialist now, but there are some policies that are somewhat socialist. When we talk about socialist countries we talk about Scandinavian countries like Denmark, Norway, Sweden in the developed world that have strong welfare systems that protect the poor, the elderly, the disabled, the children. Nepal is not economically developed enough to take care of all its poor or elderly or disabled people, but there are some policies such as giving two to three thousand rupees a month to senior citizens or providing 10 essential medicines for free, government hospitals also provide free health care.

Many are poor but have many problems, and recently a nationwide health insurance law is being debated and enacted in parliament, which could help. Therefore, we are taking steps slowly, but no, in the current context, Nepal cannot be called a fully socialist state.

Result of Capitalism : According to a speech given by Rajneesh in 1969, it seems that socialism is the result of capitalism. He said that he believed that socialism was inevitable in a country like India, but for fifty, sixty or seventy years, India must first apply its efforts to create wealth.

Only socializes poverty. What was needed to escape its backward state was capitalism, science, modern technology, and birth control. He did not consider capitalism and socialism as opposite systems, but considered it disastrous for any country to talk about socialism without first building a capitalist economy.

In the context of Nepal, the general political commitment to socialism based on democratic values and principles has been expressed in the Preamble of the Constitution of Nepal made by the Constituent Assembly. Article 4 of the Constitution defines Nepal as a socialist-oriented democratic republican state. As a guiding principle of the state, article 50, sub-section 3 emphasizes the participation of public, private and cooperatives in production and distribution, and the subject of developing a socialist-oriented economy in the country is mentioned. Therefore, it seems that the constitution of Nepal envisages that our country will move forward as a liberal democratic country that assimilates the major aspects of socialism, not as a socialist country.

Social Justice:

As the basic character of Nepal's economic policy, it is seen as a constitutional recognition that the government itself should provide the basic services that common citizens should get equally for social justice and facilitate the contribution of the private and cooperative sector in other aspects of production and economic development.

Samajbadi Front:

Recently, while addressing the four-party "Socialist Front" declaration meeting, one of its constituents, CPN United Socialist Party, respected leader and former prime minister, Jhalnath Khanal said, "This front should not become just a front to maintain power."

At a glance, this front building exercise seems long. This attempt was made after the dissolution of the then CPN. This attempt was made by Pushpa Kamal Dahal, Chairman of CPN Maoist Center.

With the formation of the front, Dahal has benefited the most. He now has the power of 54 MPs. United Samajwadi Party president Madhav Kumar Nepal is also in this front.

It is claimed that they have formed a front because they are united on a common issue even though they have different principles, ideologies, and perspectives.

CPN United Samajwadi Party Chairman Madhav Kumar Nepal has clarified that the Samajwadi Front is not selfish. "We have no skepticism and insistence.

Seven-point agreement Samajwadi Morcha Nepal was declared by signing the agreement on seven point agreement . The letter was signed by CPN Maoist Center Chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal 'Prachanda', Janata Samajwadi Party Chairman Upendra Yadav, CPN Unified Samajwadi Party Chairman Madhav Kumar Nepal and CPN General Secretary Netra Vikram Chand 'Biplav'. They held hands in the declaration meeting and made a united declaration.

As Nepal is a diverse federal democratic republic state, it has resolved to build a socialist republic state based on democratic values and knowledge, science and technology developed during social development. In the memorandum of understanding, it is resolved to strengthen and institutionalize the Federal Democratic Republic, which was developed as a result of the People's Revolution of 2062-63, developed from the movements of various communities such as the People's Movement, the People's War, and the Madhes People's Rebellion.

Challenges faced:

Bearing in mind that there is a need for a united initiative of the socialist forces to face the national political, economic, social and cultural problems and challenges existing in the country and to give the country a progressive exit in the current situation where the backward, status quo and progressive political tendencies exist in the national politics, the protection and implementation of the Constitution , we have agreed to form the Samajwadi Morcha, Nepal to complete the rest of the peace process as well as timely revision, modification and development', the memorandum of understanding mentions in a long point. A 15-point stipulation letter has also been issued.

Extension to local level:

It is also mentioned that if there will be a coordination committee with chairman to make policy decisions, it can be extended to the local level. Prime Minister and Chairman of CPN Maoist Center 'Prachanda' said that those who are in favor of progress with Samajwadi Morcha should not be afraid, but this is a declaration of war against those who are trying to reverse the changes and turn the country back to regression.

Netra Vikram Chand 'Biplav' said that he was firm on the goal of socialism. He said that Samajwadi Morcha is a new mode and experiment of Nepali politics. "The Samajwadi Front, which was announced with the aim of starting a new fight to protect the independence of Nepal, is a new mode in the politics of Nepal," he said. Although there is diversity in the understanding of political parties about a socialist or socialist-oriented state, not only the parties who played an important role in issuing the constitution from the Constituent Assembly, but also the Madhes-centric parties who opposed the process of issuing the constitution by holding a vote on the question of state restructuring, did not disagree regarding the economic character of the state accepted by the constitution. Therefore, rather than the endless debate about socialism, it is more important whether the parties are ready to make their policies and behavior than the current constitution, which is implemented as a tool for building a prosperous country.

Even before the unification of the former Maoist Center and UML, it has been a long time since they formed a left alliance with the goal of reaching socialism and communism through capitalism and entered the general elections.

In the current situation, the government's policy and leadership behavior is not towards socialism but its opposite direction.

The journey of both the government and the opposition is not towards socialism but towards neo-feudalism. Socialist system of government: Especially in countries that have adopted a socialist system of government, there is public or collective ownership of resources, and there is equality of opportunity.

In the case of Nepal, even though social security is given importance to move towards socialism, there is a fixed age. After passing a certain age, everyone, rich and poor, gets social security allowance.

The private sector is based on trade rather than production. The challenge is how to transform it into an industry. During the tender, they take the goods of foreign companies. There is no program towards socialism as written in the constitution.

Constitution is on one side and activity is on the other side.

Socialism debate in Nepal

The Constitution of Nepal envisages a prosperous and socialist Nepal. However, the essential sectors connected with the economy and public life have been given to the private sector.

Socialism debate has been going on in the left circles of Nepal for some time now. Even the Nepali Congress occasionally becomes part of this "chorus" of socialism.

If there had been an academic debate on this topic among scholars or politicians, it would have been ignored as debate and deliberation are an integral part of the academic world. But in such discussions organized by the forum affiliated with the Communist Party, the senior leaders of the Communist Party give keynote speeches focusing on the construction of socialism in Nepal, that event is even more important.

Socialism is a philosophy, and a political and economic theory aimed at the overall development of humanity. Even the main opponents of socialism cannot ignore the welfare state, which is a major part of socialism.

"From each according to his ability and to each according to his work" is the main economic slogan of socialism. Another defining feature of socialism is the free provision of the basic needs of the people such as education, health and housing by the state.

Socialism in the Constitution:

The Constitution of Nepal envisages a prosperous Nepal oriented towards socialism. However, all essential sectors of the economy and public life have been given to the private sector.

Futile discussion

It is unthinkable to lay the foundations of socialism on a fragmented social and economic basis like in Nepal. What is ironic is that the leaders have not stopped debating the issue of building socialism in Nepal while ignoring the pathetic situation of the country, for which it cannot be said that the bureaucracy and politicians of Nepal are solely responsible.

Instead of selling the dream of "prosperous Nepal" by engaging in futile debates about socialism, it would be better if the party leaders mobilized their power to complete the rest of the work of nation building by transforming the corrupt and dilapidated politics.

It is unthinkable to lay the foundations of socialism on a scattered and miserable social and economic base like in Nepal. The irony of the present "Federal Democratic Republic" is that its rulers have adopted a policy of exporting competent and capable manpower, and almost half of the working age population has migrated abroad.

They have completely washed their hands in creating jobs in the country and preventing the migration of human capital. Arguing about building socialism in Nepal by sending half of the manpower abroad and ignoring the bitter fact that the state is running on remittances is itself an exercise in defeat.

The momentum of Nepali renaissance has been wasted. The discourse that started in the 1950s, which can also be called Nepali renaissance, has always moved in the wrong direction.

To serve the country and the people, political parties need good intentions, vision, willpower and ethics. Many say that "socialism" may sound better than "communism", but unless the parties commit to their promises, the people on the margins will never benefit.

Sociologists say, it is not wrong for parties to have their ideology, but how they formulate their programs and how to convince the people is the main thing to be considered.

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