Leaders in Ukraine are trying to prepare their people for a relentless new phase of fighting. They are telling them to stock up on food and warm clothing. They say attacks by Russian forces could lead to total blackouts.
Residents of the capital Kyiv are already facing a cold, dark winter. They have seen the Russians launch one attack after another against the power grid. Utility providers say they can meet only about 70 percent of demand.
Some workplaces in Kyiv have been plunged into darkness for more than four hours a day. That has forced them to scale back production.
One worker at an auto repair garage said that, without electricity, they can only do about a quarter of the work they used to do. He added that they won't be able to stay in business if it keeps up.
German Chancellor Olaf Scholz expressed his concern to Russian President Vladimir Putin. He told Putin by phone on Friday that he condemns the attacks on infrastructure. However, Putin says the strikes are an "inevitable" response to Ukrainian military aggression.