Chinese President Xi Jinping and Russian President Vladimir Putin have reaffirmed close ties between their countries amid deepening confrontation with the West.
The leaders met in Beijing on the sidelines of the Belt and Road Forum.
Representatives from more than 140 countries are attending the meeting on China's initiative aimed at creating a huge economic zone.
Xi said in a speech, "International Belt and Road cooperation has got off the ground, grown rapidly and produced fruitful outcomes over the past 10 years.
Putin praised the project in a speech, saying, "Belt and Road logically fits into multilateral efforts to strengthen creative and constructive interaction throughout the global community."
The leaders later held a bilateral summit.
Chinese state-run media said Xi called Putin an "old friend."
Following their talks, Xi said in a speech: "As great powers, China is willing to work with Russia. We will contribute to the development and revitalization of both countries, to maintaining international justice and promoting common development around the world."
Putin said: "In the current difficult conditions, close foreign policy coordination is especially necessary. We're already doing that."
Putin told reporters he and Xi discussed the situations in Ukraine and the Middle East, including the Israel-Hamas conflict.
He said those external factors are common threats that only strengthen interactions between Russia and China.